PSY504 Assignment 2 Solution 2021
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Attention and working memory
are crucial for everyday living and learning They’re both aspects of executive
functioning that help us take in and make sense of new information But while
they’re closely linked. these functions are not the same thing.
Attention is the process that
allows us to take information in It also helps us select useful information.
Think of it as a funnel. It gathers what we need to know and channels it into
our brains. There are four important parts of paying attention well. Kids may
have trouble with any or all of these components.
Kids need to be ready to pay attention.
Kids must be able to identify what deserves attention. For
example. they have to be able to focus on the teacher. not on the voices out in
Kids have to be able to stay
reasonably attentive over time. This could be for a three-minute presentation
or for a 40-minute lecture.
Kids should be able to shift
attention briefly when important new information is introduced. For example.
they should be able 0, focus on a brief announcement on the intercom. Then they
should be able to turn their attention hack to the teacher.
Kids with attention issues
mas not recall what they’ve been taught That’s because it never “got into
their head” in the first place
Question NO 1
Five daily life tasks
Short Term Memory is a system that
allows us to store a limited amount of information for a short period of time.
Here are some daily life tasks for which we
rely upon short term memory.
read the previous sentence and understand its meaning. Without shun term
memory. by the time we had reached the last word of the sentence, we would
probably have forgotten the first word we read here we can rely on short term
someone gives us their phone number, we need short-term memory to keep the
number in our mind for as long as it takes us to write it down or dial it on
our phone. Here we can also rely on
short term memory to remember phone numbers until we dial.
When we watch cricket matches. and after the
completion of the match when someone asked about who performed well. who scored
highest and how many he scored? Which bowler took wickets and how much he
conceded runs so now we rely on short term memory to answer all these questions.
4. When we
go for shopping after ow come back usually our parents asked that what’s the
price of your Shoes, what’s the price of your jeans , what’s the price of your
shirt, what is the price of your uniform, etc. So, when such questions are
asked by our parents to answer of all their questions here we rely on short
When we prepared ourselves for exams and when the
day of exam has come now here we rely on short term memory how much we have
still remembered that we read in last few days and when we have attempted our
paper after that when someone asked what sort of questions you have asked? From
which chapter the questions are? Etc. To answer These types of questions here
we rely on short term memory to remember these
Question No 2 Solution
Che Atkinson-Shiffrin model.
Multi-store model or Multi-memory model is a psychological model proposed in
1968 as a proposal for the structure and it proposed that human memory involves
a sequence of three stages:
Sensory memory (SM)
Working memory or short-term
memory (STM) Long-term memory (LTM)
Information passes from store
to store in a linear way. and has been described as an information processing
model (like a computer) with an input, process and output. Multi store model of
memory diagram Information is detected by the sense organs and enters the
sensory memory. If attended to this information enters the short-term memory.
Information from the short-term memory is transferred to the long-term memory
only if that information is rehearsed (i.e., repeated). If maintenance
rehearsal (repetition) does not occur. then information is forgotten. and lost
from short term memo through the processes of displacement or decay.
The sense organs have a
limited ability to store information about the world in a fairly unprocessed
way for less than a second. The visual system possesses iconic memory for
visual stimuli such as shape. size, color and location (but not meaning).
whereas the hearing system has echoic memory for auditory stimuli. Coltheart et
al (1974) have argued that the momentary freezing of visual input allows us to
select which aspects of the input should go on for further memory processing.
The existence of sensory memory has been experimentally demonstrated by its Sperling,
(1960) using a tachistoscope.
Information selected by
attention from sensory memory. may pass into short term memory (STM). This
allows us to retain information long enough to use it, e.g., looking up a
telephone number and remembering it long enough to dial it. Peterson and
Peterson (1959) have demonstrated that STM last approximately between 15 and 30
seconds, unless people rehearse the material, while Miller (1956) has found
that STM has a limited capacity of around 7 ‘chunks’ of 2/3 information. STM
also appears to mostly encode memory acoustical!!! (in terms of sound) as
Conrad (1964) has demonstrated, but can also retain visuospatial images.
LTM provides the lasting
retention of information and skills, from minutes to a lifetime. Long term
memory appears to have an almost limitless capacity to retain information, but
it could -be measured as it would take too long. LT information seems to be
encoded mainly in terms 313 meaning (semantic memory) as Baddeley has shown,
but also retains procedural skills and imagery
Question no 3
are some really interesting facts about our memory
brains have the capacity to store up to 2.5 petabytes of data. That’s the
equivalent of three million hours of TV shows—or about the same storage as
nearly 4.000 256GB iPhones (the largest size
between the ages of five and seven remembered 6() percent or more of them early
life events. eight- and nine-year-old recalled less than 40 percent of the same memories.
brains function better when we’re well-rested. One study found that people who
were taught specific finger movements (like you would learn on the piano) were
better able to recall them after 12 hours of rest. “When you’re asleep, it
seems as though you are shifting memory to mom efficient storage regions within
College students who participated in
45-minute meditation sessions four times a week
scored 60 points higher on the GRE’s verbal exam after just two weeks the —and
if you have trouble clearing your mind when you sit cross-legged, try these 10
Ways to Focus Better.
types of people could be tricked into false memories. For instance, when the
psychologies used “lures’ words like pillow. duvet, and nap, a majority of
the subjects would believe beyond:
reasonable doubt that they had heard the word
6. It is
believed that you can hold between five and nine items in your short-term
memory. and they will stay there for just 20 to 30 seconds. Those memories that
don’t get stored in the long-term memory are ultimately just forgotten.
7. When we
think hack to the time when we first met our significant other, we have a 3/ 3 C project our current feelings onto our
past memories. “Your memory reframes and edits events, crate a story to
fit your current world “