Bio301 Assignment 3 Solution 2021
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What is a mutation? Write types of mutation? What are the benefits of mutation? (1+3+1)
The mutation is the spontaneous change in the sequence of nucleotides of the DNA which results in the formation of an abnormal protein.
1. Point mutation:
It is a type of mutation which results in a change in one nucleotide or a nitrogenous base sequence in DNA or protein which causes the disorder.
2. Chromosomal abnormalities
These are caused by the change in the number and structure of the chromosome. It is due to deletion, inversion, and duplication of chromosomes.
Benefits of mutation
The population which undergoes mutation has greater chances of survival in the environment as compared to the common individual.
Mutation provides the raw material for evolution in the form of genetic evolution.
• Briefly discuss the significance and role of polyploidy in evolution. Be sure to state whether autoploidy or alloploidy has been more important in speciation and why?(5)
Polyploidy is principally a duplication of the entire genome of the organism. Polyploidy is very important in the process of evolution because this is produced variation in the next generation. The biased retention of genes following WGDs offers a unique evolutionary potential to evolve key innovations and to increase biological complexity in the long term. The consequences of polyploidization are complex and variable, and they differ greatly between systems and species, but the process has often been considered to be an evolutionary end.
Alloploidy has to be proof more significant than autoploidy because it has the effect of hybridization of DNA which leads to evolution. Allopolyploids contain two or more distinct genomes and can arise through the hybridization of two different species concomitant with genome doubling.